Book of John 19:18-42 

Book of John 19:18-42

The Romans delivered Jesus to be crucified

John 19:18 where they crucified Him, and two others with Him, one on either side, and Jesus in the center.

These other two men were thieves, robbers, rebels or bandits, depends on the translation.  Bad dudes, were they probably members of Barabbas gang, guilty of the same crimes.

According to Roman custom, Jesus had to carry His cross on His shoulders, from the place of sentencing to the place He was crucified.

The Romans crucified Jesus because the Jewish Leadership wanted Jesus dead: 

Psalms 22:16 For dogs have surrounded Me; The congregation of the wicked has enclosed Me. They pierced My hands and My feet;

Crucifixion: causes suffocation only relieved by the legs pushing up, very painful. Slow death (up to nine days). 

John 19:19 Now Pilate wrote a title and put it on the cross. And the writing was: JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS.

It was a Roman custom to write the name of the condemned person and his crime on a plaque to be placed above his head at the execution and carried it around his neck to the place of execution.

Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews”: The plaque was written By Pilate himself.  Remember, Jews curse anyone who followed the Nazarene in their services.  

John 19:20 Then many of the Jews read this title, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin.

In three languages: Latin, official language of the empire; Greek, common international and current language; and Hebrew, the language of the country.  Everyone could read the message in his or her own language.

Many Jews read this title, so people going to Jerusalem for the Passover, since the cross stood by the roadway.  Romans wanted to make public examples to deter others from committing the same crimes.

John 19:21 Therefore the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, “Do not write, ‘The King of the Jews,’ but, ‘He said, “I am the King of the Jews.”

Chief Priests was probably Caiaphas and Annas.  They objected to Jesus being called King of the Jews. They did not want a messianic designation connected with Him.

Wondering, is this when the chief priests of the Jews are no longer God’s Priests?  The resurrection of Jesus is our High Priests and start of the Church of God, for the Saints.

Therefore. Now that the Priests have got what they wanted out of Pilate {death of Jesus} they see that in granting it, Pilate has insulted them publicly before the thousands present at the Passover,

John 19:22 Pilate answered, “What I have written, I have written.”

Pilate refused to make any change the wording.

The Roman laws forbad a sentence to be altered when once pronounced; and as this inscription was considered as the sentence pronounced against our Lord Jesus, therefore, it could not be changed.  A Messianic proclamation for Jesus was officially acknowledged by the personal representative of the ruler of the world.

Pilate fastened upon the Jews the hated name of the Nazarene as their King.

John 19:23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His garments and made four parts, to each soldier a part, and also the tunic. Now the tunic was without seam, woven from the top in one piece.

According to Roman law, the garments of a condemned criminal belonged to the executioners.  Jewish traditions dictated that men ought not to be publicly executed completely naked, and men condemned to stoning were permitted a loin-cloth.  Stephen?

Soldiers took Jesus garments:

Psalms 22:18 they divide my clothing among themselves; they cast lots for my clothing!

John 19:24 They said therefore among themselves, “Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be,” that the Scripture might be fulfilled which says: “THEY DIVIDED MY GARMENTS AMONG THEM, AND FOR MY CLOTHING THEY CAST LOTS.” Therefore the soldiers did these things.

John 19:25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus His mother, and His {Jesus} mother’s sister, {Salome} Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene.

John omits the name of his own mother Salome, who was there also.  Mary witness the pain, suffering and death of her Son,

Luke 2:35 {Simeon prophecy for Mary} (yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul also), that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.”

Matthew 27:56 Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of Zebedee’s sons.

John 19:26 When Jesus therefore saw His mother, and the disciple whom He loved standing by, He said to His mother, “Woman, behold your son!

  • Was this the parting words to His mother
  • Jesus just told John to provide for Mary, His mother
  • Mary did have other children (Mt 13:55, 56;).
  • To take care of her, Jesus knew John was going to live a long time.

John 19:27 Then He said to the disciple, “Behold your mother!” And from that hour that disciple took her to his own home.

Jesus placed Mary in the care of John, His disciple and John’s aunt.

The Death of Jesus 

John 19:28 After this, Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said, “I thirst!

There was a time before all things were accomplished.

Jesus said He thirst so that the Scripture might be fulfilled. 

Psalms 69:21 They also gave me gall for my food, And for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.

gall:  poisonous plant, like hemlock, poison, venom {When?}

vinegar:  sour wine

There are at least 28 prophecies fulfilled while Jesus was hanging on the cross

John 19:29 Now a vessel full of sour wine was sitting there; and they filled a sponge with sour wine, put it on hyssop, and put it to His mouth.

Interesting side – was Jesus up high as all the pictures show. 

hyssop, and put it to his mouth — Though a stalk of this plant does not exceed 12 to 24 inches in length, it would suffice, as the feet of crucified persons were not raised high.

Actually, the Hyssop is a brightly colored shrub or subshrub that ranges from 12 to 24 in height.  Thoughts of Passover Lamb

Could it be, Jesus accepted a taste of greatly diluted wine, to wet parched lips and a dry throat so He could make one final announcement to the world with a clear, loud voice

John 19:30 So when Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, “It is finished! And bowing His head, He gave up His spirit.

Jesus gave up His spirit: Having fulfilled every command of the Father and every prophecy of Scripture, Jesus voluntarily died.

No one took Jesus’ life from Him; He, in a manner unlike any man, gave up His own spirit.

John 10:17-18 “Therefore My Father loves Me, because I lay down My life that I may take it again.  (18)  No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This command I have received from My Father.”

“It is finished”: Tetelestai – just means, concluded, discharge a debt, make an end.  Accomplished.

Jesus’ final words. Cry of the Victor lips.  not defeated.

Colossians 2:12 having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through your faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead 

Colossians 2:13-14 When you were dead in your sins and in the uncircumcision of your flesh, God made you alive with Christ. He forgave us all our sins (14)  having canceled the charge of our legal indebtedness, which stood against us and condemned us; he has taken it away, nailing it to the cross.

nailed … to the cross: Not only were our personal sins forgiven at the Cross, but those rules that condemned us have also been removed by the death of Christ.

The moment of His death was the moment of our salvation.

Romans 6:3-4 Or do you not know that as many of us as were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into His death?  (4)  Therefore we were buried with Him through baptism into death, that just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.

Jesus willingly and deliberately surrendered His life for us.

Bowing His head: This speaks of a peaceful act, like lying down on a pillow to sleep. Jesus did not hang His head in defeat; He bowed His head in peace.

Jesus’ Side Is Pierced

John 19:31 Therefore, because it was the Preparation Day {Wednesday afternoon}, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day) {Thursday}, the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

For that sabbath day was a high day”: 1st High Sabbath of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.  This breaking of the legs must have been terrifying for a man still alive on a cross.

bodies should not remain on the cross: It is interesting that in the midst of a deliberate murder of Jesus, the Jews were very strict about keeping the ceremonial law. According to Jewish law 

Deuteronomy 21:22-23 “If a man is guilty of a capital offense, is executed, and then is impaled on a tree, (23) his body must not remain overnight on the tree. You must bury him that same day, because cursed of God is the one who has been hanged on a tree. Don’t defile your land that the LORD is about to give you as your inheritance.”

Just wondering, capital offense in Israel was mainly by stoning, not impaled on a tree.  Could this be a prophecy about Lord Jesus.

Four types of capital punishment: a) stoning, b) burning by ingesting molten lead, c) strangling, and d) beheading, each being the punishment for specific offences.

It was necessary to remove the bodies of executed criminals before sunset, because the High Sabbath Day.

John 19:32 Then the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first and of the other who was crucified with Him.

The Jews wanted their death to be done quickly because of the High Sabbath day, Pilate consents that the legs of the victims should be broken in order to hasten death, so that the bodies might be taken down and burned in the valley. The legs were crushed with a hammer like a sledge and the shock would bring speedy death.

John 19:33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs.

“They broke not his legs”: Bones not broken. Soldier did not follow instructions! The Passover Lamb was not to have a bone broken

Exodus 12:46 In one house it shall be eaten; you shall not carry any of the flesh outside the house, nor shall you break one of its bones.  {Passover Lamb}

Numbers 9:12 They shall leave none of it until morning, nor break one of its bones. According to all the ordinances of the Passover they shall keep it.

John 19:34 But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out.

Blood and water came out: indicating that Jesus was already dead. Only blood would have flowed from a living body.

Jews Passover: wine mixed with warm water?  Seder meal, wine has added water to it.

Cause of death: ruptured (broken) heart, massive heart failure  

Psalms 69:20 Scorn has broken my heart and has left me helpless; I looked for sympathy, but there was none, for comforters, but I found none.

John 19:35 And he who has seen has testified, {John himself} and his testimony is true; and he knows that he is telling the truth, so that you may believe.

The Apostle John is giving an eyewitness account of what he saw and heard.  John must have been pretty near the cross to have been able to distinguish between the blood and the water, as they flowed from the side of Jesus.

John gave solemn assurance that he was present at the crucifixion of Jesus and saw these things with his own eyes, why, so we may believe.

John 19:36 For these things were done that the Scripture should be fulfilled, “NOT ONE OF HIS BONES SHALL BE BROKEN.”

Psalms 34:20 He {Lord} guards all his bones; Not one of them is broken.

Matthew 27:51-53 Then, behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; and the earth quaked, and the rocks were split,  (52)  and the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised;  (53)  and coming out of the graves after His resurrection, they went into the holy city and appeared to many. With the veil torn from top to bottom, The Father open the Holy of Holies to His Saints.

Why is this interesting, these Saints were raised after Jesus resurrection, what 3 days after His death. 

John 19:37 And again another Scripture says, “THEY SHALL LOOK ON HIM WHOM THEY PIERCED.”

Zechariah 12:10 “And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication. They will look on me, the one they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son.

Zechariah 13:6 And one will say to him, ‘What are these wounds between your arms?‘ Then he will answer, ‘Those with which I was wounded in the house of my friends.’

Proving that Jesus is the Messiah, both the lack of broken bones and the piercing of His side fulfilled prophecies recorded in the OT

Jesus is Buried

John 19:38 After this, Joseph of Arimathea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly, for fear of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus; and Pilate gave him permission. So he came and took the body of Jesus.

Joseph of Arimathea, a rich member {Matt 27:57} a prominent Jewish council member {Mar 15:43}: Access to Pilate. Not just anyone could get direct access to Pilate! 

He was an Uncle of Jesus, a family member, was Influential with Pilate, remember, Joseph provided Tin to the Romans from England on his ships.

John 19:39 And Nicodemus {a ruler of the Jews}, who at first came to Jesus by night, also came, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds.

Both Nicodemus and Joseph were members of the Sanhedrim. Only John mentions that he aided Joseph in the burial.

A hundred pounds was a large amount. Nicodemus intended to cover Jesus’ entire body with exceeding costly spices, a common burial custom and carried by his servants. 

John 19:40 Then they took the body of Jesus, and bound it in strips of linen with the spices, as the custom of the Jews is to bury.

The women who witnessed this burial returned home to prepare spices and ointments to finish the procedure later (Lk 23:56).

Could it be that they found after examining Jesus entire body, found broken pieces of thorn all over the head. They saw His bloody, matted hair; the terrible bruising of the face, the areas of beard pulled out, the dry and cracked lips.

They turned the body over to see His shoulders and arms are riddled with wood splinters; each one was removed with care. The back, from the shoulders down, was a bloody open wound from the terrible scourging suffered before the crucifixion. His hands and feet were smashed and bloodied.

On the front – just beneath the rib cage – there was a gaping wound made from the spear thrust that confirmed His death.

John 19:41 Now in the place where He was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb in which no one had yet been laid.

Matthew 27:59-60 Joseph took the body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,  (60)  and placed it in his own new tomb that he had cut out of the rock. He rolled a big stone in front of the entrance to the tomb and went away.

Interesting, Preparing for his own family death, a rich man.

This too was a fulfillment of a prophecy: The Messiah would be buried in a rich man’s grave.  Did there 2 Pharisees, experts in the law, know that they were fulfilling prophecy. 

Isaiah 53:9 He was assigned a grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death, though he had done no violence, nor was any deceit in his mouth.

The door to the tomb was typically made of a heavy, circular shaped stone, running in a groove and settled down into a channel, so it could not be moved except by several strong men. This was done to ensure that no one would disturb the remains.

John 19:42 So there they laid Jesus, because of the Jews’ Preparation Day, for the tomb was nearby.

Acts 13:29 Now when they had fulfilled all that was written concerning Him, they took Him down from the tree and laid Him in a tomb.

Mark 15:47 Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joseph saw where he was laid.

This burial gave both Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus a way to proclaim as a witness that Jesus was dead, and they inspected Jesus body and prepared it for burial.  Two witness of Jesus death.

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